Richard Wilson book page
includes purchasing details.
Six and a half years ago we called for contributions
. Now we contribute this book
back to the FolkMADS
Introduction to the first edition
This book is the fruit of an old idea, a long fallow period, and a final burst of enthusiastic commitment. The idea was to provide Richard with a meaningful focus and contribution during his last year of life. He wrote and wrote, filling notebooks; Lauren transcribed what she could. We photocopied all his cards that could be found in October 2010; Katherine provided an initial transcription. This book has taken many forms in its many revisions and reimaginings: experimenting with different paper sizes, interleaving the stories from other people in with his own story, modifying the dance formats, and finally returning to this fairly simple format. The long lull, after much compilation and redrafting, was partly due to my grieving after Richard passed; with Richard gone the urgency of the project had passed, since my primary commitment was to him. Then I allowed other projects to take over, including the trials of earning tenure as faculty at UNM. Finally, after almost six years, it is done.
While I may not have been able to realize the book I envisioned, this is it. I’m heartened by a thoughtful and generous community to whom I present this gift and tribute. Five years since Richard’s passing, I still feel his spirit and gentleness as I teach new dancers and callers, just as he taught me, feeling how each foot lifted is as important as how each is set upon.
Erik Barry Erhardt
Albuquerque The Magazine
gave me the opportunity to say what I love
Thumbs Up: FolkMADS.
I love contributing to and connecting to the
living traditions of community-centered American and Western European folk music and dance in New Mexico, from the
English influences from the
late 1600s, to the
local Rocky Mountain squares from the
1820s, through to the
current Modern Urban Contra dances we enjoy each week.
Thumbs Down: Goatheads.
I’m optimistic for Albuquerque
‘s Parks and Rec department’s strategy to plant native grass
along a portion of the
city’s 170 miles of trails to squeeze out the
goatheads and their spiny little seeds. Here’s another option: host-specific, puncturevine eating weevils
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Albuquerque The Magazine, November 2015, p. 35[/caption]
In Vivo Inhibition of miR-155 Promotes Recovery after Experimental Mouse Stroke
Ernesto Caballero-Garrido, Juan Carlos Pena-Philippides, Tamar Lordkipanidze, Denis Bragin, Yirong Yang, Erik Barry Erhardt, and Tamara Roitbak.
The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(36), pdf
Online: September 9, 2015
A multifunctional microRNA, miR-155, has been recently recognized as an important modulator of numerous biological processes. In our previous in vitro studies, miR-155 was identified as a potential regulator of the endothelial morphogenesis. The present study demonstrates that in vivo inhibition of miR-155 supports cerebral vasculature after experimental stroke. Intravenous injections of a specific miR-155 inhibitor were initiated at 48 h after mouse distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO). Microvasculature in peri-infarct area, infarct size, and animal functional recovery were assessed at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after dMCAO. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy, we detected improved blood flow and microvascular integrity in the peri-infarct area of miR-155 inhibitor-injected mice. Electron microscopy revealed that, in contrast to the control group, these animals demonstrated well preserved capillary tight junctions (TJs). Western blot analysis data indicate that improved TJ integrity in the inhibitor-injected animals could be associated with stabilization of the TJ protein ZO-1 and mediated by the miR-155 target protein Rheb. MRI analysis showed significant (34%) reduction of infarct size in miR-155 inhibitor-injected animals at 21 d after dMCAO. Reduced brain injury was confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating decreased neuronal damage in the peri-infarct area of stroke. Preservation of brain tissue was reflected in efficient functional recovery of inhibitor-injected animals. Based on our findings, we propose that in vivo miR-155 inhibition after ischemia supports brain microvasculature, reduces brain tissue damage, and improves the animal functional recovery.
In the present study, we investigated an effect of the in vivo inhibition of a microRNA, miR-155, on brain recovery after experimental cerebral ischemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the efficiency of intravenous anti-miRNA injections in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. The role of miRNAs in poststroke revascularization has been unexplored and in vivo regulation of miRNAs during the subacute phase of stroke has not yet been proposed. Our investigation introduces a new and unexplored approach to cerebral regeneration: regulation of poststroke angiogenesis and recovery through direct modulation of specific miRNA activity. We expect that our findings will lead to the development of novel strategies for regulating neurorestorative processes in the postischemic brain.
Nasal vaccination of young rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against infectious hematopoietic necrosis and enteric red mouth disease
Salinas, I, EB Erhardt, and S LaPatra.
Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 53(1), pdf
, pp. 105–111
Online: June 23, 2015
Determining the earliest age at which farmed fish can be successfully vaccinated is a very important question for fish farmers. Nasal vaccines are novel mucosal vaccines that prevent aquatic infectious diseases of finfish. The present study investigates the ontogeny of the olfactory organ of rainbow trout by histology and aims to establish the earliest age for vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease using the nasal route. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated intranasally (I.N) at three different ages: 1050° days (DD) (group A); 450 DD (group B); and 360 DD (group C), or 70, 30 and 24 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. The mean weights of groups A, B and C were 4.69 g, 2.9 g and 2.37 g, respectively. Fish received either a live attenuated IHN virus vaccine, ERM formalin killed bacterin or saline (mock vaccinated). Fish were challenged to the corresponding live pathogen 28 days post-vaccination. IHN vaccine delivery at 360 DD resulted in 40% mortality likely due to residual virulence of the vaccine. No mortality was observed in the ERM nasal delivery groups. Following challenge, very high protection rates against IHN virus were recorded in all three age groups with survivals of 95%, 100% and 97.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival against ERM was 82.5%, 87.5% and 77.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival rates did not differ among ages for either vaccine. Our results indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of nasal vaccination as early as 360 DD and vaccination-related mortalities when a live attenuated viral vaccine was used in the youngest fish.
Multidimensional frequency domain analysis of full-volume fMRI reveals significant effects of age, gender and mental illness on the spatiotemporal organization of resting-state brain activity
Miller, RL, EB Erhardt, EA Allen, AM Michael, JA Turner, J Bustillo, JM Ford, DH Mathalon,
TGM van Erp, S Potkin, A Preda, G Pearlson, and VD Calhoun (2015).
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 9(203) pdf
Online: June 16, 2015
Clinical research employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is often conducted within the connectionist paradigm, focusing on patterns of connectivity between voxels, regions of interest (ROIs) or spatially distributed functional networks. Connectivity-based analyses are concerned with pairwise correlations of the temporal activation associated with restrictions of the whole-brain hemodynamic signal to locations of a priori interest. There is a more abstract question however that such spatially granular correlation-based approaches do not elucidate: Are the broad spatiotemporal organizing principles of brains in certain populations distinguishable from those of others? Global patterns (in space and time) of hemodynamic activation are rarely scrutinized for features that might characterize complex psychiatric conditions, aging effects or gender—among other variables of potential interest to researchers. We introduce a canonical, transparent technique for characterizing the role in overall brain activation of spatially scaled periodic patterns with given temporal recurrence rates. A core feature of our technique is the spatiotemporal spectral profile (STSP), a readily interpretable 2D reduction of the native four-dimensional brain × time frequency domain that is still “big enough” to capture important group differences in globally patterned brain activation. Its power to distinguish populations of interest is demonstrated on a large balanced multi-site resting fMRI dataset with nearly equal numbers of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Our analysis reveals striking differences in the spatiotemporal organization of brain activity that correlate with the presence of diagnosed schizophrenia, as well as with gender and age. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a 4D frequency domain analysis of full volume fMRI data exposes clinically or demographically relevant differences in resting-state brain function.
Family history of cancer and risk of pediatric and adolescent Hodgkin lymphoma: A Children’s Oncology Group study
Linabery, AM, EB Erhardt, MM Richardson, RF Ambinder, DL Friedman, SL Glaser, A Monnereau, LG Spector, JA Ross, and S Grufferman
International Journal of Cancer 137(9), pdf
, pp. 2163–2174
Online: May 19, 2015
Family history of lymphoid neoplasm (LN) is a strong and consistently observed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk factor, although it has been only marginally examined in pediatric/adolescent patients. Here, healthy control children identified by random digit dialing were matched on sex, race/ethnicity and age to HL cases diagnosed at 0–14 years at Children’s Oncology Group institutions in 1989–2003. Detailed histories were captured by structured telephone interviews with parents of 517 cases and 783 controls. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) RNA detection was performed for 355 available case tumors. Two analytic strategies were applied to estimate associations between family cancer history and pediatric/adolescent HL. In a standard case–control approach, multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In a reconstructed cohort approach, each relative was included as a separate observation, and multivariate proportional hazards regression was used to produce hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Using the latter, pediatric/adolescent HL was associated with a positive family history (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06–1.36), particularly early-onset cancers (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06–1.59) and those in the paternal lineage (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16–1.65), with a suggested association for LN in first-degree relatives (HR = 3.61, 95% CI: 0.87–15.01). There were no discernable patterns for EBV+ versus EBV– HL. The clustering of LN within pedigrees may signal shared genetic susceptibility or common environmental exposures. Heritable genetic risk variants have only recently begun to be discovered, however. These results are consistent with other studies and provide a compelling rationale for family-based studies to garner information about genetic susceptibility to HL.
Family history of cancer and childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group and the Utah Population Database
Lupo, PJ, HE Danysh, SE Plon, K Curtin, D Malkin, S Hettmer, DS Hawkins, SX Skapek, LG Spector, K Papworth, B Melin, EB Erhardt, S Grufferman, and JD Schiffman
Cancer Medicine 2015, 4(5), pdf
Online: March 23, 2015
Relatively little is known about the epidemiology and factors underlying susceptibility to childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To better characterize genetic susceptibility to childhood RMS, we evaluated the role of family history of cancer using data from the largest case–control study of RMS and the Utah Population Database (UPDB). RMS cases (n = 322) were obtained from the Children’s Oncology Group (COG). Population-based controls (n = 322) were pair-matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between family history of cancer and childhood RMS. The results were validated using the UPDB, from which 130 RMS cases were identified and matched to controls (n = 1300) on sex and year of birth. The results were combined to generate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Having a first-degree relative with a cancer history was more common in RMS cases than controls (ORs = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.97–1.98). Notably, this association was stronger among those with embryonal RMS (ORs = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.54–3.86). Moreover, having a first-degree relative who was younger at diagnosis of cancer (<30 years) was associated with a greater risk of RMS (ORs = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.34–4.18). In the largest analysis of its kind, we found that most children diagnosed with RMS did not have a family history of cancer. However, our results indicate an increased risk of RMS (particularly embryonal RMS) in children who have a first-degree relative with cancer, and among those whose relatives were diagnosed with cancer at <30 years of age.
Assessing dynamic brain graphs of time-varying connectivity in fMRI data: application to healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia
Yu, Q, EB Erhardt, J Sui, Y Du, H He, D Hjelm, M Cetin, S Rachakonda, R Miller, G Pearlson, and VD Calhoun
NeuroImage 107, pdf supp
, pp. 345–355.
Online: 15 February 2015
Graph theory-based analysis has been widely employed in brain imaging studies, and altered topological properties of brain connectivity have emerged as important features of mental diseases such as schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have focused on graph metrics of stationary brain graphs, ignoring that brain connectivity exhibits fluctuations over time. Here we develop a new framework for accessing dynamic graph properties of time-varying functional brain connectivity in resting-state fMRI data and apply it to healthy controls (HCs) and patients with schizophrenia (SZs). Specifically, nodes of brain graphs are defined by intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) identified by group independent component analysis (ICA). Dynamic graph metrics of the time-varying brain connectivity estimated by the correlation of sliding time-windowed ICA time courses of ICNs are calculated. First- and second-level connectivity states are detected based on the correlation of nodal connectivity strength between time-varying brain graphs. Our results indicate that SZs show decreased variance in the dynamic graph metrics. Consistent with prior stationary functional brain connectivity works, graph measures of identified first-level connectivity states show lower values in SZs. In addition, more first-level connectivity states are disassociated with the second-level connectivity state which resembles the stationary connectivity pattern computed by the entire scan. Collectively, the findings provide new evidence about altered dynamic brain graphs in schizophrenia, which may underscore the abnormal brain performance in this mental illness.
Validation of biomarkers in subcortical ischaemic vascular disease of the Binswanger type: approach to targeted treatment trials
Rosenberg, GA, J Prestopnik, J Adair, BN Huisa, J Knoefel, A Caprihan, C Gasparovic, J Thompson, EB Erhardt, and R Schrader
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, pdf
Online: January 24, 2015
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous group of cerebrovascular diseases secondary to large and small vessel disease. We hypothesised that biomarkers obtained early in the disease could identify a homogeneous subpopulation with small vessel disease.
We obtained disease markers in 62 patients with VCI that included neurological findings, neuropsychological tests, multimodal MR and cerebrospinal fluid measurements of albumin ratio, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), amyloid-β1–42 and phosphorylated-τ181. Proton MR spectroscopic imaging showed ischaemic white matter and permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was measured with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. We constructed a 10-point Binswanger disease score (BDS) with subjective and objective disease markers. In addition, an objective set of biomarkers was used for an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to select patients with BD. Patients were followed for an average of 2 years to obtain clinical consensus diagnoses.
An initial BDS of 6 or greater was significantly correlated with a final diagnosis of BD (p<0.05; area under the curve (AUC)=0.79). EFA reduced nine objective biomarkers to four factors. The most predictive of BD was the factor containing the inflammatory biomarkers of increased BBB permeability, elevated albumin index and reduced MMP-2 index (factor 2; AUC=0.78). Both measures independently predicted a diagnosis of BD, and combining them improved the diagnostic accuracy.
Biomarkers predicted the diagnosis of the BD type of subcortical ischaemic vascular disease. Using pathophysiological biomarkers to select homogeneous groups of patients needs to be tested in targeted treatment trials.
Evaluation of dual nasal delivery of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and enteric red mouth vaccines in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Scott LaPatra, Samantha Kao, Erik B. Erhardt, Irene Salinas
Vaccine 33(6), pdf
, pp. 771–776
Online: January 3, 2015
Farmed fish are susceptible to different infectious disease agents including viruses and bacteria. Thus, multivalent vaccines or vaccination programs against two or more pathogens are valuable tools in aquaculture. Recently, nasal vaccines have been shown to be very effective in rainbow trout. The current study investigates, for the first time, the use of the nasal route in dual vaccination trials against two important aquatic diseases, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease. Rainbow trout received live attenuated IHN virus (IHNV) vaccine and the ERM bacterin using four different vaccine delivery methods and were challenged with virulent IHNV or Yersinia ruckeri 7 (100 deg day) and 28 (400 deg day) days post-vaccination. The highest survival rates against IHNV at day 7 were obtained by nasal vaccination either when IHNV and ERM were delivered separately into each nare or when they were premixed and delivered to both nasal rosettes (group D). Protection at 28 days against IHNV was similar in all four vaccinated groups. Early protection against ERM was highest in fish that received each vaccine in separate nares (group B), whereas protection at 28 days was highest in the i.p. vaccinated group (group E), followed by the nasally vaccinated group (group B). Survival results were supported by histological observations of the left and right olfactory organ which showed strong immune responses one day (14 deg days) after vaccination in group B vaccinated fish. These data indicate that dual vaccination against two different pathogens via the nasal route is a very effective vaccination strategy for use in aquaculture, particularly when each nare is used separately during delivery. Further long-term studies should evaluate the contribution of adaptive immunity to the protection levels observed.