UNM Stat 427/527: Advanced Data Analysis I (ADA1)
Table of Contents
Learn to produce beautiful (markdown) and reproducible (knitr) reports with informative plots (ggplot2) and tables (kable) by writing code (R, tidyverse, Rstudio) to answer questions using fundamental statistical methods (all one- and two-variable methods), which you’ll be proud to present (poster).
Weekly structure(also see “Assessment” below)
- Pre-class (Tuesday): Reading, Video, Quiz due before class Tue 3:30 PM — solutions become available after the quiz is due.
- In-class (Tuesday and Thursday): Activities in class due by 5 PM the following day, submitted to UNM Learn (evaluated by TA within 1 week).
- Post-class (Thursday): Homework due the following Thursday by 3:30 PM, submitted to UNM Learn (evaluated by TA within 1 week).
Course notes, code, data, and video lecturesSecond text: PDS Textbook Notes from Fall 2019: ADA1_notes_F19.pdf includes all chapters in one document. Citing lecture notes example: Erhardt EB, Bedrick EJ, and Schrader RM. (2019) Lecture notes for Advanced Data Analysis 1. Retrieved Sep 1, 2019, from statacumen.com/teach/ADA1/notes/ADA1_notes.pdf, 136–144. Lecture notes for Advanced Data Analysis 1 (ADA1) Stat 427/527 University of New Mexico is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at https://statacumen.com/teach/ADA1/notes/ADA1_notes_F19.pdf.
|Ch||Chapter Title||Notes||R code||Datasets||Video lectures playlist||Helper videos|
|00||Introduction to R, Rstudio, and ggplot||R||00-1 00-2||markdown, 01 PDS codebook, 01 HW codebook, 02 HW Lit review|
|01||Summarizing and Displaying Data||R||01-1||03 HW 03 subset|
|02||Estimation in One-Sample Problems||R||02-1 02-2 02-3|
|03||Two-Sample Inferences||R||03-1 03-2 03-3|
|05||One-Way Analysis of Variance||R||CHDS dat desc||05-1|
|06||Nonparametric Methods||R||06-1 one-sample, 06-2 paired, 06-3 two-sample, 06-4 ANOVA, 06-5 perm test.|
|07||Categorical Data Analysis||R||07-1 intro, 07-2 single prop, 07-3 GOF-test, 07-4 two prop & cond prob, …|
|08||Correlation and Regression||R||BodyMass dat desc pdf||08-1 corr/log, 08-2 corr hyp test, 08-3 LS reg eq, 08-4 08-5|
|09||Introduction to the Bootstrap||R||09-1|
|10||Power and Sample size||R||10-1|
|11||Data Cleaning||R||11-1||14 HW to poster|
|12||ADA2 Ch 11 Logistic Regression||R||12-1 12-2 12-3 12-4||Upgrading R on Windows|
Passion-Driven Statistics (PDS) dataI encourage you to use one of the AddHealth datasets. Use W1 if you want to understand adolescents when they were young and W4 if you want to understand adult relationships. NESARC is also interesting for alcohol abuse, depression, and related conditions. It can be difficult to find good numeric variables. I will include a few under each dataset.
- AddHealthW1 Sampling Design, Codebook, RData. Adolescents when they were young.
- Unique ID “AID”.
- A few numeric variables: age (in data, not in codebook), …
- Other potential variables (run this code): names(AddHealth)[lapply(AddHealth, class) %in% c(“numeric”, “integer”)]
- AddHealthW4 Sampling Design, Codebook, RData. Same adolescents when they were older, move life events.
- Unique ID “aid”.
- A few numeric variables: agew1 (not in codebook, age in Wave 1 — for age in Wave 4, see the AddHealth4 age example “AH14$age_years”), H4EC1, H4EC2, …
- Other potential variables (run this code): names(addhealth_public4)[lapply(addhealth_public4, class) %in% c(“numeric”, “integer”)]
- NESARC Sampling Design, Codebook, RData. Alcohol abuse and related conditions.
- Unique ID “IDNUM”.
- A few numeric variables: AGE (in data, not in codebook), …
- Other potential variables (run this code): names(NESARC)[lapply(NESARC, class) %in% c(“numeric”, “integer”)]
OutlookOnLife Sampling Design, Codebook, RData.Interesting data, but not enough continuous variables to use, unique ID “CASEID”. GapMinder Sampling Design, Codebook, RData.Country data, but it’s complicated to average large and small countries, unique ID “country”.
SEV LTER dataSevilleta (SEV) Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program Arthropod and Small Mammal Description and Codebook Rmd html, data.zip
Erik’s example homework document: NESARC data, nicotine and depression. Use these files as a model for your assignments: .Rmd + .bib = .html.
|Wk-Date||Cl||Topic||Reading, Video, Quiz||In-class Worksheet, Data||Homework|
|00-08/20||00||Install software, survey||Step 0 (above)||pre-survey required for classroom assessment (8/7 – 9/6/2019)|
|01-08/20||01||Intro, data, poster||read: PDS Chs 2-3; video: Rmd, Ch 2-3, Med records||CTLB video, Active Learning, 01 Syllabus subset, 01a Medical records Rmd html Turn in assignment in Thursday’s class to learn how UNM Learn works.||(Intro to using RMarkdown: Rmd html)|
|01-08/22||02||Rmd, codebook||video: 01 Personal codebook||In-class: yesterday’s 01a submit by 16:00 Work as a group, each submit own copy.||HW: 01 Personal codebook Rmd html Choose from PDS datasets|
|02-08/27||03||Research questions||read: PDS Ch 2-4; video: Lit Rev biblio & Mendeley; quiz: 02 codebook and lit review||In-class: Rmd html Turn in one question of variable association.||(UNM Google Scholar) (For experienced PubMed users, use TeXMed to get the bibtex format)|
|02-08/29||04||Citations and Literature review||In-class: Rmd html bib Turn in one citation to a research question.||HW: 02 Literature review Rmd html bib (While we won’t be doing a research proposal as part of this class, if we were covering more on research methods, then we might continue with a short research proposal (Rmd html).)|
|03-09/03||05||R programming, data subset and numerical summaries||read: PDS Chs 5, 8, & 18, Ch 00 R, Ch 01 R; video: Ch 00 p1, Ch 00 p2, Ch 01; quiz: 03 programming, univariate||In-class: Rmd html Look at datasets in R, create subset of data, rename variables, numerical summaries.||ADA1 ALL Outline file Rmd html All of your assignments will be written in this file.|
|03-09/05||06||Plotting univariate||video: HW 03 vid||In-class: Rmd html Univariate plots of numerical and categorical variables.||HW: 03 Data subset, univariate summaries and plots Rmd html (See the link above the table “Erik’s NESARC data, nicotine and depression”.)|
|04-09/10||07||Plotting bivariate, numeric response||read: PDS Ch 9, Ch 00 R; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html Complete at least one bivariate coding relationship.|
|04-09/12||08||Plotting bivariate, categorical response||In-class: Rmd html Complete at least one bivariate coding relationship.||HW: 04 Rmd html|
|05-09/17||09||Simple linear regression, intro||read: Ch 8.4, 8.2 R; video: 08-1 corr/log, 08-3 LS reg eq; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html dat Build intuition using SLR App, interpret properties of linear regression fit.|
|05-09/19||10||Logarithm transformation||(novel example)||In-class: Rmd html dat Plot, transform, plot, and interpret.||HW: 05 Rmd html|
|06-09/24||11||Correlation||read: Ch 8.1, 8.3.1 R, Ch 7.5.1 only sections on “conditional probability” and the following example R; video: 08-1 corr/log, 08-2 corr hyp test, 07-4 two prop & cond prob; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html Data collection (hand span and word memory), correlation, regression to the mean.||Spurious Correlations|
|06-09/26||12||Categorical contingency tables||quiz 06b, Guess Ages (for next in-class)||In-class: Rmd html d1 Interpret condition proportions in two examples. Simpson’s Paradox||HW: 06 Rmd html|
|07-10/01||13||Inference, intro||read: Ch 2.1-2.2 R; video: see table above; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html Guess Ages, Legos. (Legos part 2 Rmd html dat, diagram).||BBC Radio 4: More or Less, “sampling” 9 min audio|
|07-10/03||14||Parameter estimation (one-sample)||In-class: Rmd html Water on Earth.||HW: 07 Rmd html PDS Data Sampling Designs: AddHealth, OOL, NESARC|
|08-10/08||15||Hypothesis testing (two-sample)||read: Ch 2.3-end R Ch 3 R; video: see table above; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html one- and two-sample tests using data we collected in class.|
|08-10/10||Fall Break||HW: 08 Rmd html|
|09-10/15||16||Paired data, assumption assessment||read: Ch 2.2.1, Ch 3.4 & 3.6, Ch 4, Ch 5; video: see table above; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html Paired data and checking model assumptions.|
|09-10/17||17||ANOVA, post-hoc comparisons||In-class: Rmd html ANOVA, model assumptions, and paired comparisons.||HW: 09 Rmd html|
|10-10/22||18||Nonparametric methods||read: Ch 6, Ch 7.2-7.4, Ch 10; video: see table above; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html NP one-sample tests and CIs, and ANOVA with pairwise comparisons.|
|10-10/24||19||Binomial and multinomial proportion tests||In-class: Rmd html dat Multinomial: World series number of games.||HW: 10 Rmd html|
|11-10/29||20||Two-way categorical tables||read: Ch 7.8-end, Ch 8.5-8.7; video:; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html dat Popular kids.|
|11-10/31||21||Simple linear regression, inference||In-class: Rmd html Regression of height vs hand span using data from our class.||HW: 11 Rmd html|
|12-11/05||22||Logistic regression, intro||read: ADA2 Ch 11.1-3, 11.6, PDS Ch 16; video:; quiz: quiz||In-class: Rmd html AddHealth W4 Pregnancy.||Summary of Methods we’ve covered|
|12-11/07||23||Experiments and observational studies||In-class: Rmd html Describing a study reported in the media.||HW: 12 Rmd html|
|13-11/12||24||Statistical communication||read: PDS Ch 18; video:; quiz: no quiz||In-class: Rmd html Key statistical principles, ethics.With additional time, clarify which research questions you’ll present in your poster with a peer mentor. (Null results are ok!)||Statistics is about communication, including writing and presenting.|
|13-11/14||25||Poster Preparation||In-class: Rmd html Work on designing poster content at the bottom of your HW document.||HW: 13 Rmd html Work on your poster content. Try to complete your poster planning in your HW document.|
|14-11/19||26||Posters wrapping up||poster template pdf, Rnw, sty, bib, logo||Prof Erhardt’s example poster pdf, Rnw|
|14-11/21||27||Show poster||In-class: Course evaluations, submit receipt (capture screen image) as in-class assignment.||HW: 14 Rmd html Due next Wednesday 12/7. Complete and submit your poster in LaTeX pdf format. Transition from Markdown to LaTeX Video for poster transition|
|15-11/26||28||Approve poster, final touches||Note: The poster needs to be printed on Wed before the holiday or Friday/Monday after (closed on the weekend). Try to finish early to reduce the burden on the poster printer company.||$10 poster printing Minuteman Press, Eubank 1631 Eubank Boulevard NE, Suite D, Albuquerque, NM 87112 (505)881-0164 Open Mon-Fri 8a-5p, closed Thanksgiving, open Fri 11/29 10a-2p Submit poster to website Project name: “UNM ADA1 class poster” Due Date: 12/02/19 (at latest, try to finish a little early so you can print before holiday) Additional Details: “3’x4′ portrait poster on bond paper” File #1: Name the poster pdf with your name in the filename, such as “FirstLast_ADA1_poster.pdf”. Arrange to pick up the poster.||Have a peer mentor approve your poster for printing and presentation. Congratulations!|
|16-12/03||29||POSTERS||Poster sessions in SMLC Atrium||Poster Schedule (be on time): 3:30-3:40 Organization 3:40-4:20 Group 1 Grad 4:25-5:05 Group 2 Grad||Everyone is expected at both poster presentations.|
|16-12/05||30||POSTERS||Poster sessions in SMLC Atrium||Poster Schedule (be on time): 3:30-3:40 Organization 3:40-4:20 Group 1 UGrad 4:25-5:05 Group 2 UGrad||Students not presenting will be evaluating other poster.|
|17-12/08||Finals week||(no final)||Congratulations on a great semester!|
SyllabusDescription: Statistical tools for scientific research, including parametric and non-parametric methods for ANOVA and group comparisons, simple linear and multiple linear regression and basic ideas of experimental design and analysis. Emphasis placed on the use of statistical packages such as R. Course cannot be counted in the hours needed for graduate degrees in Mathematics and Statistics. Prerequisite: Math 1350 [Stat 145] (or other intro stats course) Semesters offered: Fall Lecture: Stat 427.001, CRN 59508; Stat 527.001, CRN 59509; TR 1530-1645; Location: CTLB 300 (building 55, northeast of Zimmerman) Video Laptops running R: I encourage you to bring a laptop to class each day so you can work on the exercises in class. If you don’t have one, no problem, there are laptops in class and teamwork is encouraged — sit next to someone friendly and discuss your work. Saving data: If you’re using classroom computers, use Flashdrives or UNM’s OneDrive (available in LoboMail) for saving files. The CTLB computers do not connect to your standard UNM drive space (as of 2016, this may not still be an issue).
InstructorsPlease include “ADA1” in the subject line of all emails.
ProfessorErik Erhardt <email@example.com>, he/him, SMLC 312
Teaching AssistantsKelli Kasper <firstname.lastname@example.org>, she/her, SMLC 306 Leah Puglisi <email@example.com>, she/her, SMLC 319 Ola Anifowoshe <firstname.lastname@example.org>, he/him, SMLC 208
Additional Assistants, Peer Mentors, SEPGrace Mayer, she/her
Office hoursMon: 11:00-14:00 Kelli, 14:00-16:00 Ola Tue: 13:00-15:00 Erik Wed: 14:00-16:00 Leah Thu: 13:00-15:00 Erik Fri: 11:00-12:00 Erik
- We are also all available by appointment by email if these many hours do not work for you.
- Leah’s tutoring table hours are for another course, so we should let Leah give priority to students from the other course. Thanks for understanding.
Student learning outcomesAt the end of the course, you will be able to: (student results: R, all years, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012) General outcomes:
- Organize knowledge in graphs, tables, and code to support concise, comprehensible, and scientifically defensible written interpretations to produce knowledge within a reproducible research environment.
- Distinguish a testable scientific hypothesis or data-supported interpretation from an opinion.
- Understand from a data story the goals of the study and apply the correct statistical procedure.
- Explain the scientific aspects of a problem to nonscientists in a fashion that enhances understanding and decision making.
- Define parameters of interest and hypotheses in words and notation.
- Summarize data visually, numerically, and descriptively and interpret the observed characteristics. Calculate and interpret numerical summaries such as mean, variance, five-number summary, confidence intervals, and p-values, and create visual summaries such as bar plots, scatter plots, and histograms. (Never pie charts!)
- Distinguish between statistical significance and scientific relevance.
- Use statistical software, such as R, to read and manage data, create informative plots, report numerical summaries, and apply statistical models, by recommended programming practice including abstraction and documentation.
- Understand the differences and limitations of controlled experiments and observational studies. Design experiments to infer causal treatment effects. Analyze observational data to infer associations between measured variables.
- Identify and explain the statistical methods, assumptions, and limitations used in reported studies in scientific literature or popular media.
- Evaluate and criticize published studies, the work of peers, and your own work and assess what was done well, what could be done better, and examine whether their conclusions are supported using statistical principles.
- Make evidence-based decisions by constructing and deciding between testable hypotheses using appropriate data and methods.
- Discover relationships and make predictions through model development and selection.
Meeting the learning outcomesYou will acquire new information in this class, but the emphasis is comprehending, integrating, and applying information. Rote factual memorization is the lowest form of learning. Effective learning takes place by explaining, integrating, applying, and analyzing facts, hypotheses, and theories. Learning in this class occurs by:
- Doing – completion of exercises that require analysis of data to answer questions and test hypotheses, or researching answers to reading assignments.
- Discussion – interaction with classmates to assemble and synthesize information you’d utilizing the collective skills and knowledge base of the group.
- Listening, acting, and reflecting – activities during class time provide insights into information not available in readings and includes review difficult material to aid comprehension. Note taking permits later reflection on lecture content. Listening to the professor lecture is the least effective learning tool for both students, however, and you should plan on coming to every class prepared to participate in active and reflective learning opportunities.
- Quizzes will be due each Tuesday before class. Purpose: to assess reading and video comprehension and assure you’re prepared to actively participate in class activities with minimal lecture. (About 12, 20% of final grade, the lowest few are dropped.) Most weeks plan for 1-2 hours reading and video, 20 minute quiz. Quizzes are not timed, they can be taken twice, and the higher of the two scores is used for grade calculation.
- Viewing quiz solutions after the due date in UNM Learn is not intuitive. Click on the “Begin” button (this is the non-intuitive part, since you are not actually beginning the quiz), then click “View All Attempts” to see the scores. Finally, click “Calculated Grade” to see the feedback for each question of the quiz.
- In-class assignments are due by 5pm the next day, submitted to UNM Learn. Purpose: to struggle and find success in class with the concepts and skills. (About 24, includes class participation, 30% of final grade, the lowest several are dropped.) Most weeks plan to finish in class.
- Homework (HW) assignments are assigned each Thursday and due the following Thursday, submitted to UNM Learn. Purpose: to apply concepts and skills to your class poster project. (About 12, 30% of final grade, the lowest few are dropped.) Most weeks plan on 1-4 hours per assignment.
- Poster will be developed through semester (most HW assignment contribute to poster), the last couple weeks we’ll complete them, and the last week we’ll have poster presentations. Purpose: to have an overarching set of questions to answer using methods learned in the course, with a deliverable you can be proud of! (1 poster and presentation, 12% poster, 2% presentation, and 2% evaluations of others of final grade.) In the last couple weeks, assembling this poster may take 5-10 hours, using a template provided to you.
- Course surveys are due at the beginning and end of the course. Purpose: to participate in national project-based learning projects and improve course. (About 2, 4% of final grade.)
Collaboration and citationFor homework, I encourage you to work together. Please discuss the data, code, and problems with one another, but do your own exploration and write up. We expect everyone to submit substantially different homework, and we will enforce this under the honor code. The small benefit you might get from plagiarism is not worth the severe penalty (of lost trust, being reported to the dean, no points for the assignment, etc.). As in life, please use any resources available to you. Projects and some homework will explicitly encourage you to use resources on the internet, but showing extra initiative will always be appreciated. You may find R programming tough at first, so feel free discuss your problems with other classmates or meet with or email questions to the me or the TAs. I encourage you to use the ideas of others, but make them your own, giving credit. For projects have a formal bibliography, for homework cite casually, and for code simply copy the URL in as a comment (which is doubly helpful for finding the resource again). You won’t be the first person to do anything in this class, so give credit where it’s due.
Accommodation StatementIn accordance with University Policy 2310 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), academic accommodations may be made for any student who notifies the instructor of the need for an accommodation. It is imperative that you take the initiative to bring such needs to the instructor’s attention, as he/she are not legally permitted to inquire. Students who may require assistance in emergency evacuations should contact the instructor as to the most appropriate procedures to follow. Contact Accessibility Resource Center at 277-3506 for additional information.
Title IX statementIn an effort to meet obligations under Title IX, UNM faculty, Teaching Assistants, and Graduate Assistants are considered “responsible employees” by the Department of Education (see pg 15). This designation requires that any report of gender discrimination which includes sexual harassment, sexual misconduct and sexual violence made to a faculty member, TA, or GA must be reported to the Title IX Coordinator at the Office of Equal Opportunity. For more information on the campus policy regarding sexual misconduct.
UNM Indigenous Peoples Land and Territory AcknowledgmentI would like to acknowledge the original peoples of this land. The Sandia Pueblo (other pueblo communities) and the Navajo nation have ties and stories on this land and within the broader community that are connected within New Mexico. I am grateful to be able to work here in relationship and strengthen community on this territory.
Our ClassroomWe’re doing this because:
- We want you to be empowered with statistics.
- We believe everyone should get out of this course with awesome skills
- Real-time feedback promotes efficient learning
GAISE ConnectionsOur six recommendations include the following:
- Emphasize statistical literacy and develop statistical thinking
- Use real data
- Stress conceptual understanding, rather than mere knowledge of procedures
- Foster active learning in the classroom
- Use technology for developing conceptual understanding and analyzing data
- Use assessments to improve and evaluate student learning
Learning without thought is labor lost. What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand. – Confucius
Course introduction materials
Pre-course to-dosDid you receive a registration error for Fall 2019? Send me an email with the following answers: 1. What registration error did you get (copy/paste is best)? 2. What is your UNM ID? 3. What is your Math/Stat background (that is, do you have the pre-requisites)? If you are waitlisted, as long as there are seats available I will override you into the course. Don’t worry.
Step 0Before our first class (Tue 8/20) please read through the following actions and install the required software on your computer and complete the brief survey. If you don’t have a computer, there are classroom computers which will be available only when the classroom is open. Video for this process.
- Complete surveys
- a short Opinio pre-survey required for classroom assessment (8/7 – 9/6/2019).
- Respondus survey about passion driven statistics (PDS) course content, by email (8/20 – 8/27/2019).
- Install R (windows or mac) or upgrade , then Rstudio. Videos that may be helpful:
- Install R packages, also update all packages within RStudio.
- Set up your computer
- (Postpone until later: Install LaTeX (for poster at end of the semester).)
Problems installing PDS package? Solution. If you had problems installing the PDS package, no problem; here’s how to get the data: 1. Download the “.RData” file above for your dataset. 2. Where I have “library(PDS)” in my code, change it to the two lines below. You’ll need to update the “PATH_TO_FILE” below to the path on your computer’s hard drive, and “filename” needs to be changed to the name of the file. This will directly read the data file.
# library(PDS) setwd("/PATH_TO_FILE") load("filename.RData")Joining AddHealth waves 1 and 2 together into a single dataset can be done if you want to use variables from when the participants were both adolescents and adults. See Erik’s example project for the code.
Saving data: If you’re using classroom computers, use Flashdrives or UNM’s OneDrive (available in LoboMail) for saving files. The CTLB computers do not connect to your standard UNM drive space. I recommend using a very systematic folder structure, such as ADA1/HW, ADA1/Class, ADA1/Reading, ADA1/Poster, etc. Do not just work on files in your downloads folder or your desktop; respect your data and code!
Unicode compile problems: If you knit to pdf you may get this error: “! Package inputenc Error: Unicode char”. ASCII is a small character set what we use to program in, Unicode is an extended character set that looks pretty (for example “straight quotes” become “curly quotes”) but causes code to break. You get unwanted Unicode when you copy/paste from a pdf or some other source into your code. To fix this, you have to find the Unicode and replace it with it’s ASCII equivalent. To do this: Ctrl-F to find, search for “[^\x00-\x7F]” (without quotes), select “Regex” for regular expressions, and find the “Next” one. As it finds instances, replace the characters manually until there are no more. These characters will typically be curly quotes or fancy dashes.
Random stuffUNM has a license for free online access to the definitive books for the Lattice and ggplot2 graphing platforms. Note you must be on campus or logged in through the UNM proxy to access these. R is currently available (2016) in these UNM Locations: DSH 141 and 143, Econ 1004, SMLC pods, and SUB IT-LoboLab Pod and IT-LoboLab Classroom. R style matters. There is a lot of online help on R, such as at UCLA, try-r, and Google’s Intro to R video series. Usually, try searching for “R [mytopic]” and you’ll get lots of results. ggplot2 plotting cookbook. R reference card by Jonathan Baron. Translate between MATLAB and R. Figure checklist. Choosing the right chart. Nature Methods points of view on visualization. Statistical consulting and collaboration slides Raster vs vector graphics. Statistics pre-req refresher from Khan Academy. Coursera has a free 4-week course on computing for data analysis with R. Muddy points in perspective. R+LaTeX+knitr for reproducible research. See my SC1 lecture notes (Ch01), and Mohammad Arbabshirani’s notes (pdf, rnw). Asking smart questions “Smart Questions” guide (note “hackers build things, crackers break them”) Email Question Rubric: * Send one email per question. — Use “Reply” to continue conversation on a question; send a new email for a new question. * Include “ADA1” as the first word of the subject line in new emails (if replying, just use reply). * Begin email with a short question summary. * When possible, include commented code in email body — Comments should indicate where the problem is, what the expected behavior is, and what steps are necessary to reproduce problem. — Code should include a “Minimum representative test cast” (http://www.catb.org/esr/faqs/
Why stats now?140,000 analysts needed. Important enough to have a US Chief Data Scientist (1) (2).
Table of selected statistical methodsThe data and design determine which method you use: original or UCLA. Here’s a table of methods with the applicable semester of ADA and Chapter.
|Number of Dependent Variables||Number of Independent Variables||Type of Dependent Variable(s)||Type of Independent Variable(s)||Measure||Test(s)||ADA-Ch|
|1||0 (1 population)||continuous normal||not applicable (none)||mean||one-sample t-test||1-02|
|continuous non-normal||median||one-sample median||1-06|
|categorical||proportions||Chi Square goodness-of-fit, binomial test||1-07|
|1 (2 independent populations)||normal||2 categories||mean||2 independent sample t-test||1-03|
|non-normal||medians||Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon rank sum test||1-06|
|categorical||proportions||Chi square test Fisher’s Exact test||1-07|
|0 (1 population measured twice) or 1 (2 matched populations)||normal||not applicable/ categorical||means||paired t-test||1-02|
|non-normal||medians||Wilcoxon signed ranks test||1-06|
|categorical||proportions||McNemar, Chi-square test||1-07|
|1 (3 or more populations)||normal||categorical||means||one-way ANOVA||1-05|
|categorical||proportions||Chi square test||1-07|
|2 or more (e.g., 2-way ANOVA)||normal||categorical||means||Factorial ANOVA||2-05|
|categorical||proportions||log-linear, logistic regression||2-11|
|0 (1 population measured 3 or more times)||normal||not applicable||means||Repeated measures ANOVA||not|
|1||normal||continuous||correlation, simple linear regression||1-08|
|categorical||categorical or continuous||logistic regression||2-11|
|2 or more||normal||continuous||multiple linear regression||2-02|
|normal||mixed categorical and continuous||Analysis of Covariance, General Linear Models (regression)||2-09|
|2||2 or more||normal||categorical||MANOVA||2-15|
|2 or more||2 or more||normal||continuous||multivariate multiple linear regression||not|
|2 sets of 2 or more||0||normal||not applicable||canonical correlation||not|
|2 or more||0||normal||not applicable||factor analysis||not|
|0 or more||mixed categorical and continuous||principal component analysis (w/multiple regression)||2-13|