PDS Ch 4: Literature Review (newly written)

  1. (1 p) Is the dataset indicated?

  2. (2 p) Is the research question stated, typically by an association between variables?

  3. (2 p) Is there an indication that the literature search expanded, focussed, or otherwise modified the original research question?

  4. (1 p) If additional variables were added, was there an indication that that information exists in the data they have? If not, is it clear that the variables they need to answer their question are in their dataset? (No sense trying to answer a question you don’t have data for.)

  5. (2 p) Are there at least three (3) articles in the bibliography that appear to relate to research question?

  6. (2 p) Is the review concise and written clearly?

  7. Compile this Rmd file to an html, print the html as a pdf file, and upload the pdf to UNM Learn..

A well written paper that convinces you the author has (1) reviewed the literature, (2) has a topic that will expand the knowledge in the area, and (3) has used at least three references should receive a 8-10. A submission that satisfies two of the three criteria perfectly or most but not all of the three criteria should receive a 5-7. A submission that satisfies only one of the three criteria should receive a 2-4. If the submission does not render or the submitter did not submit the correct assignment, they should receive a 0-1.

During your literature review, you should:

  1. Identify primary source articles that address the association that you have decided to examine.

  2. Download relevant articles.

  3. Read the articles that seem to test the association most directly. Focus on the Abstract (main findings), look at the Tables and Figures and read the captions, skim the discussion for main findings, make notes that apply to your question, then move on to the next — do not read the article from beginning to end.

  4. Identify replicated and equivocal findings in order to generate a more focused question that may add to the literature. Give special attention to the “future research” sections of the articles that you read (maybe your question relates to those next steps that they didn’t take).

  5. Based on the literature, select additional questions/items/variables that may help you to understand the association of interest. In doing so, further refine your research question. Add relevant documentation (i.e., code book pages) to your personal codebook.

  6. At this stage, you can use the “nocite:” command as shown in the bib and citations reference.


Dataset: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), with codebook NESARC_W1_CodeBook.pdf.

Research question:

  1. Is nicotine dependence [S3AQ10D] associated with smoking frequency [S3AQ3B1] and quantity [S3AQ3C1]?
    • Google scholar search: “nicotine dependence smoking frequency”
    • Citation: pdf file available for Dierker et al. (2007)
    • Interesting points: Figures 2 and 3, quantity and frequency both positively related to probability of dependence.
    • Others: Kandel and Chen (2000) and Caraballo, Novak, and Asman (2009)

You don’t need to include images in your literature review. I’m providing these tables to illustrate what these tables look like:

  1. Is nicotine dependence [S3AQ10D] associated with depression [S4AQ1]?
    • Google scholar search: “nicotine dependence depression”
    • Citation: pdf file available for Naomi Breslau (1995)
    • Interesting points: Table 2, Smoking and Nicotine Dependence both associated with Education. Table 3, Major depression associated with being nicotine dependent and Sex.
    • Others: N. Breslau et al. (1998)
  1. Is the associated between nicotine dependence [S3AQ10D] and depression [S4AQ1] different by demographics, such as Education or Sex?
    • In Question 2 we see differences by Education and Sex.

I have decided to further focus my question by examining whether the association between nicotine dependence and depression differs based on how much a person smokes. I am wondering if at low levels of smoking compared to high levels, nicotine dependence is more common among individuals with major depression than those without major depression. I add relevant depression questions/items/variables to my personal codebook as well as several demographic measures (age, gender, ethnicity, education, etc.) and any other variables I may wish to consider.

All required variables have been found and added to my personal codebook (by expanding Class 03).


Breslau, N., E. L. Peterson, L. R. Schultz, H. D. Chilcoat, and P. Andreski. 1998. “Major Depression and Stages of Smoking. a Longitudinal Investigation.” Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (2): 161–66.

Breslau, Naomi. 1995. “Psychiatric Comorbidity of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence.” Behavior Genetics 25 (2). Springer: 95–101.

Caraballo, Ralph S., Scott P. Novak, and Katherine Asman. 2009. “Linking Quantity and Frequency Profiles of Cigarette Smoking to the Presence of Nicotine Dependence Symptoms Among Adolescent Smokers: Findings from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research, January, ntn008. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntn008.

Dierker, Lisa C., Eric Donny, Stephen Tiffany, Suzanne M. Colby, Nicholas Perrine, and Richard R. Clayton. 2007. “The Association Between Cigarette Smoking and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Among First Year College Students.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 86 (2–3): 106–14. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.05.025.

Kandel, D. B., and K. Chen. 2000. “Extent of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in the United States: 1991-1993.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2 (3): 263–74.