PDS Ch 4: Literature Review (newly written)

  1. (1 p) Is the dataset indicated?

  2. (2 p) Is the research question stated, typically by an association between variables?

  3. (2 p) Is there an indication that the literature search expanded, focussed, or otherwise modified the original research question?

  4. (1 p) If additional variables were added, was there an indication that that information exists in the data they have? If not, is it clear that the variables they need to answer their question are in their dataset? (No sense trying to answer a question you don’t have data for.)

  5. (2 p) Are there at least three (3) articles in the bibliography that appear to relate to research question?

  6. (2 p) Is the review concise and written clearly?

  7. Compile this Rmd file to an html and upload to crowdgrader (do not include your name, keep it anonymous).

A well written paper that convinces you the author has (1) reviewed the literature, (2) has a topic that will expand the knowledge in the area, and (3) has used at least three references should receive a 8-10. A submission that satisfies two of the three criteria perfectly or most but not all of the three criteria should receive a 5-7. A submission that satisfies only one of the three criteria should receive a 2-4. If the submission does not render or the submitter did not submit the correct assignment, they should receive a 0-1.

During your literature review, you should:

  1. Identify primary source articles that address the association that you have decided to examine.

  2. Download relevant articles.

  3. Read the articles that seem to test the association most directly. Focus on the Abstract (main findings), look at the Tables and Figures and read the captions, skim the discussion for main findings, make notes that apply to your question, then move on to the next — do not read the article from beginning to end.

  4. Identify replicated and equivocal findings in order to generate a more focused question that may add to the literature. Give special attention to the “future research” sections of the articles that you read (maybe your question relates to those next steps that they didn’t take).

  5. Based on the literature, select additional questions/items/variables that may help you to understand the association of interest. In doing so, further refine your research question. Add relevant documentation (i.e., code book pages) to your personal codebook.

  6. At this stage, you can use the “nocite:” command as shown in the bib and citations reference.


Dataset: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), with codebook wv1codebook.pdf.

Given the association that I have decided to examine, I use such keywords as nicotine dependence, tobacco dependence, and smoking. After reading through several titles and abstracts, I notice that there has been relatively little attention in the research literature to the association between smoking exposure and nicotine dependence. I expand a bit to include other substance use that provides relevant background as well.

Based on my reading of the articles in the References as well as others, I have noted a few common and interesting themes:

  1. While it is true that smoking exposure is a necessary requirement for nicotine dependence, frequency and quantity of smoking are markedly imperfect indices for determining an individual’s probability of exhibiting nicotine dependence (this is true for other drugs as well).

  2. The association may differ based on ethnicity, age, and gender (although there is little work on this).

  3. One of the most potent risk factors consistently implicated in the etiology of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence is depression.

I have decided to further focus my question by examining whether the association between nicotine dependence and depression differs based on how much a person smokes. I am wondering if at low levels of smoking compared to high levels, nicotine dependence is more common among individuals with major depression than those without major depression. I add relevant depression questions/items/variables to my personal codebook as well as several demographic measures (age, gender, ethnicity, etc.) and any other variables I may wish to consider.

All required variables have been found and added to my personal codebook (by expanding HW 1).


Breslau, N., E. L. Peterson, L. R. Schultz, H. D. Chilcoat, and P. Andreski. 1998. “Major Depression and Stages of Smoking. a Longitudinal Investigation.” Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (2): 161–66.

Dierker, Lisa C., Shelli Avenevoli, Abbie Goldberg, and Meyer Glantz. 2004. “Defining Subgroups of Adolescents at Risk for Experimental and Regular Smoking.” Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research 5 (3): 169–83.

Dierker, Lisa C., Shelli Avenevoli, Kathleen R. Merikangas, Brian P. Flaherty, and Marilyn Stolar. 2001. “Association Between Psychiatric Disorders and the Progression of Tobacco Use Behaviors.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 40 (10): 1159–67. doi:10.1097/00004583-200110000-00009.

Grant, B. F., T. C. Harford, D. A. Dawson, P. S. Chou, and R. P. Pickering. 1995. “The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): Reliability of Alcohol and Drug Modules in a General Population Sample.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 39 (1): 37–44.

Grant, Bridget F., Deborah A. Dawson, Frederick S. Stinson, Patricia S. Chou, Ward Kay, and Roger Pickering. 2003. “The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use, Family History of Depression and Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules in a General Population Sample.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 71 (1): 7–16.

Kandel, D. B., and K. Chen. 2000. “Extent of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in the United States: 1991-1993.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2 (3): 263–74.

Rohde, Paul, Christopher W. Kahler, Peter M. Lewinsohn, and Richard A. Brown. 2004. “Psychiatric Disorders, Familial Factors, and Cigarette Smoking: II. Associations with Progression to Daily Smoking.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 6 (1): 119–32. doi:10.1080/14622200310001656948.

Rohde, Paul, Peter M. Lewinsohn, Richard A. Brown, Jeffrey M. Gau, and Christopher W. Kahler. 2003. “Psychiatric Disorders, Familial Factors and Cigarette Smoking: I. Associations with Smoking Initiation.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 5 (1): 85–98. doi:10.1080/1462220031000070507.

Stanton, Warren R., John B. Lowe, and Phil A. Silva. 1995. “Antecedents of Vulnerability and Resilience to Smoking Among Adolescents.” Journal of Adolescent Health 16 (1): 71–77. doi:10.1016/1054-139X(94)00051-F.