In our class we won’t do this assignment. However, this example illustrates the next step toward clarifying your ideas and writing introductory, methods, and discussion content for your poster.


Rubric

  1. (0.5 p) Does the document open without problems?
  2. (0.5 p) Is the grammar and punctuation acceptable?
  3. (0.5 p) Is the title a concise statement of the main topic?
  4. (0.5 p) Does the title identify the actual variables under investigation and the relationship between them?
  5. (1 p) Does the introduction describe the question the author intends to investigate and how their research relates to other work in the field?
  6. (1 p) Does the literature review justify the proposed research by identifying a hole in existing scholarship?
  7. (1 p) Does the introduction build to and conclude with the research questions or study objectives the author proposes to address?
  8. (1 p) Is the literature review supported with at least five citations?
  9. (1 p) Is there a Methods section which describes how the research was conducted?
  10. (2 p) Does the Methods section include a discussion of the sample, measures, and procedures.
  11. (1 p) Is there an Implications/Predicted Results section that discusses real implications linked to possible results?

A well written paper that (1) convinces you that the author can fill a gap in the existing scholarship, (2) has a title that is a concise statement of the main topic and identifies the actual variables under investigation and the relationship between them, (3) has an introduction supported with at least three references, (4) has a Methods section that describes the sample, measures, and procedures, and (5) has a section that discusses real implications linked to possible results should receive a 8-10.

A submission that satisfies 3-4 of the 5 criteria perfectly or most but not all of the three criteria should receive a 5-7. A submission that satisfies only 1-2 of the 5 criteria should receive a 2-4. If the submission does not render or the submitter did not submit the correct assignment, they should receive a 0.


Introduction:

One of the most potent risk factors consistently implicated in both the etiology of smoking behavior as well as the subsequent development of nicotine dependence is major depression. Evidence for this association comes from longitudinal investigations in which depression has been shown to increase risk of later smoking (Breslau et al. 1998; Dierker et al. 2001). This temporal ordering suggests the possibility of a causal relationship. In fact, the vast majority of research to date has focused on the role of major depression in increasing the probability and amount of smoking (Dierker et al. 2004; Rohde et al. 2004; Rohde et al. 2003).

While it is true that smoking exposure is a necessary requirement for nicotine dependence, frequency and quantity of smoking are markedly imperfect indices for determining an individual’s probability of developing nicotine dependence (Kandel and Chen 2000; Stanton, Lowe, and Silva 1995). For example, a substantial number of individuals reporting daily and/or heavy smoking do not meet criteria for nicotine dependence (Kandel and Chen 2000). Conversely, nicotine dependence has been seen among population subgroups reporting relatively low levels of daily and non daily smoking (Kandel and Chen 2000).

A complementary or alternate role that major depression may play is as a cause or signal of greater sensitivity to nicotine dependence, over and above an individual’s level of smoking exposure. While major depression has been shown to increase an individual’s probability of smoking initiation, regular use and nicotine dependence, it remains unclear whether it may signal greater sensitivity for nicotine dependence regardless of smoking quantity.

The present study will examine young adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The goals of the analysis will include 1) establishing the relationship between major depression and nicotine dependence; and 2) determining whether or not the relationship between major depression and nicotine dependence exists above and beyond smoking quantity.

Methods:

Sample

The sample from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) represents the civilian, non-institutionalized adult population of the United States, and includes persons living in households, military personnel living off base, and persons residing in the following group quarters: boarding or rooming houses, non-transient hotels and motels, shelters, facilities for housing workers, college quarters, and group homes. The NESARC included over sampling of Blacks, Hispanics and young adults aged 18 to 24 years. The sample included 43,093 participants.

Procedure

One adult was selected for interview in each household, and face-to- face computer assisted interviews were conducted in respondents’ homes following informed consent procedures.

Measures

Lifetime major depression (i.e. those experienced in the past 12 months and prior to the past 12 months) were assessed using the NIAAA, Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV (AUDADIS-IV) (Bridget F. Grant et al. 2003; B. F. Grant et al. 1995). The tobacco module of the AUDADIS-IV contains detailed questions on the frequency, quantity, and patterning of tobacco use as well as symptom criteria for DSM-IV nicotine dependence. Current smoking was evaluated through both smoking frequency (“About how often did you usually smoke in the past year?”) coded dichotomously in terms of the presence or absence of daily smoking, and quantity (“On the days that you smoked in the last year, about how many cigarettes did you usually smoke?”)

Implications:

While chronic use is a key feature in the development of dependence, the present study will evaluate whether individual differences in nicotine dependence exist above and beyond level of exposure. If individuals with major depression are more sensitive to the development of nicotine dependence regardless of how much they smoke, they would represent an important population subgroup for targeted smoking intervention programs.

References

Breslau, N., E. L. Peterson, L. R. Schultz, H. D. Chilcoat, and P. Andreski. 1998. “Major Depression and Stages of Smoking. a Longitudinal Investigation.” Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (2): 161–66.

Dierker, Lisa C., Shelli Avenevoli, Abbie Goldberg, and Meyer Glantz. 2004. “Defining Subgroups of Adolescents at Risk for Experimental and Regular Smoking.” Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research 5 (3): 169–83.

Dierker, Lisa C., Shelli Avenevoli, Kathleen R. Merikangas, Brian P. Flaherty, and Marilyn Stolar. 2001. “Association Between Psychiatric Disorders and the Progression of Tobacco Use Behaviors.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 40 (10): 1159–67. doi:10.1097/00004583-200110000-00009.

Grant, B. F., T. C. Harford, D. A. Dawson, P. S. Chou, and R. P. Pickering. 1995. “The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): Reliability of Alcohol and Drug Modules in a General Population Sample.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 39 (1): 37–44.

Grant, Bridget F., Deborah A. Dawson, Frederick S. Stinson, Patricia S. Chou, Ward Kay, and Roger Pickering. 2003. “The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use, Family History of Depression and Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules in a General Population Sample.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 71 (1): 7–16.

Kandel, D. B., and K. Chen. 2000. “Extent of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in the United States: 1991-1993.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2 (3): 263–74.

Rohde, Paul, Christopher W. Kahler, Peter M. Lewinsohn, and Richard A. Brown. 2004. “Psychiatric Disorders, Familial Factors, and Cigarette Smoking: II. Associations with Progression to Daily Smoking.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 6 (1): 119–32. doi:10.1080/14622200310001656948.

Rohde, Paul, Peter M. Lewinsohn, Richard A. Brown, Jeffrey M. Gau, and Christopher W. Kahler. 2003. “Psychiatric Disorders, Familial Factors and Cigarette Smoking: I. Associations with Smoking Initiation.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 5 (1): 85–98. doi:10.1080/1462220031000070507.

Stanton, Warren R., John B. Lowe, and Phil A. Silva. 1995. “Antecedents of Vulnerability and Resilience to Smoking Among Adolescents.” Journal of Adolescent Health 16 (1): 71–77. doi:10.1016/1054-139X(94)00051-F.